They turn Musketiere . The label was stamped on the worn pencils Olof Palme, West Germany’s Willy Brandt and Austria’s Bruno Kreisky . The first two became Heads of Government in 1969, Kreisky the following year. Letter exchange and meeting report show how the political map was drafted, both at home and internationally. It was the times of Social Democracy, with governments in most Western countries north of the Alps. But that was tampered with a surging boom with inflation and unemployment, extra stressed after the oil crisis 73.
In this political tombola, the three heads of government sought an alternative between two superpowers. There was an opening in the cold war for both crippled – with Vietnam law and Watergate in Nixon’s United States and captured planetary economy in Brezjev’s Soviet.
The link to Alexandre Dumas The three musketeers are bribery. Europe was rebel in what would be the thirty-year war. The three bodyguards are fighting against Cardinal Richelieu and other evil powers. Athos goes back to Bruno Kreisky? Oldest, wisest and most aristocratic, with a cage relatives who gave us Felix’s inserted cucumbers . Willy Brandt and Porthos? Both weak for wine, women and singing – for Brandt, however, song in moderate amount. Palm and jesuit like Armamis? Burning in another, a dishonor who loved to hate.
In that case, SPD Vice-President Herbert Wehner can be seen as d’Artagnan, a penitent defeatist who does not contend for what he believes. With Carl-Gustaf Svingel as his faithful servant Planchet. With great courage, Christian anti-Semitism prevails in secret to save political prisoners behind Stasigaller.
Everyone spoke equally well Swedish as German. Brandt and Kreisky became good friends in the vicinity of Erlanders during the war. Wehner was grafted with Swedish Social Democracy, even though he, as a Communist spy, was detained in labor camps in Erlanders regime. Palme taught German by his German-born mother and by uncle-head of IG Farben, who made Cyklon B for the death camps. Around twenty of Kreisky’s Jewish relatives were murdered.
Common experience close friendship. Warriors made them a peacekeeper. Likewise, the need for, where Svingel became a helper in Germany where a returning Brandt froze and cool. Heavy childhood gave empathy for the weak, in poor least. Kreisky excepted they missed the dads. Gunnar Palme , the insurance company director, died when Olof was seven.
Willy Brant was bullied in the debates by the CDU leader Adenauer as ” Willy Brandt alias Frahm “, with the adventures of the exile and his unborn child. Equally unimportant as Carl-Gustaf Svingel , who grew up in a nursery in Bohuslän. Wehner’s father, Robert Richard, lost his job as a shoemaker and badly during World War I – and therefore went to the liquor.
World politically, the three heads of government shot a wedge between the two superpowers. The question is unless the grounds were set at the charming Gate Gästgiveri in Arvika on August 24, 1970. Brandt and Kreisky were there as supporters in Palmes election campaign.
” We have discussed European problems, difficulties in the East-West German negotiations, tension issues and the EEC issue, ” Palme explained. Arvika News quoted Brandt: ” It is the Swedish government that has to take a stand on the issue of neutrality. Here we can not express ourselves.He advised, however, both Sweden and Austria to wait and see time and progress a little bit. ” Afterwards, the three and Herbert Wehner spoke to 2,000 at Arvika square. The language was no problem because they learned Swedish during the war.
Escape from home problems?
President Nixon flew to the ceiling when he was warned Palmes’s Christmas in 1972 in Vällingbyradhuset: “And so the bombings (in Hanoi, Vietnam) are an evil act. And of that we have many examples in modern history. And they are generally associated with a name: Guernica, Oradour, Babi Yar, Katyń, Lidice, Sharpeville, Treblinka “ . It did not help with the apology of Palm or that Nixon’s Foreign Minister, Kissinger, signed the peace agreement in Paris a month later. Newly appointed US ambassador Yngve Möller was allowed to stay home in “the Swedish asshole”, to use the president’s word.
Watch the film from the Radhusköket in Vällingby:
Even Nixon was petted to. In March 1973, his campaigner, Gordon Liddy, was sentenced to 20 years behind the barracks for the burglary in the democrats electoral district, commonly known as Watergate.
Nixon’s antipathy against Palme took place in the summer of 1972 when. The reason was the announcement by the Prime Minister of Haldeman at the UN’s first conference on human environment in Stockholm. Palme claimed that the United States polluted the environment in Vietnam.
With the same airborne phenoxy acids as the State’s Domain and other forestry companies used to eradicate the flood. Sweet peas noted in HasseoTageSketchen: “Lisbeth, not a fan, I knew they were our blueberry spot sprinkled!”. The replica was as bad as the power plant revolver in Vindelälven. The 1970 shutdown did not help. The environmentally conscious chose the Center.
Political high tension in April
- 1973-04-02 / 06th Soviet Union ministerial chairman Alexey Kosygin on official Swedish visit. Sweden recognizes North Korea1. SPD party congress in Hanover.
- 1973-04-16-23. Palme Easter holiday in Dalarna.
- 1973-04-24-25. The Swedish government receives unofficial visit by Herbert Wehner.
- 1973-04-26. Palme is interviewed by Austrian television.
- 1973-04-27. Misrooted vote against the government Brandt.
Not much more than beautiful figures came from Alexey Kosygin’s official visit to Stockholm, 2-6 April 1973. What would Russian Prime Minister actually get from Palme? He wanted to break the plankeeping fiasco, called Brezjnev Stagnation , with decentralization to corporate groups and local power-makers. The reform launched in April was counteracted by the party’s central bureaucrats in the same way as his reform attempt in 1965. The fast visit of Kosygin’s Stockholm visit can be seen as a genre for Kosygin’s and Brezjev’s travels to Bonn and Washington in May 1973.
Did Kosygin applaud that Sweden as the first Western European country recognized North Korea as a state, at the same time during the Russian visit? In any case, both the extremist and the big-grandfather applauded. Volvo was able to sell 1000 cars and Atlas Copco took the biggest order ever – but without the Koreans paying the bills.
The gap between Chancellor Willy Brandt and his government brothers did not seem much at the Social Democrats party congress 10-14 April. The left wing was held on the carpet. Brandt’s policy was firm, foreign policy not least.
Returning from Easter holidays in Idrefjällen, Palme received April 25th of SPD’s Vice President Herbert Wehner, who left her holiday home in Öland. Wehner, who was also group leader of Social Democrats in the Covenant Day, was vehemently raised by Foreign Minister Henry Kissinger’s speech on Easter weekend, renamed the New Atlantic Charter . In what, as Wehner called a monster, American involvement in Europe would be tapped down and NATO extended to Japan. For President Nixon did not like a united Western Europe, ruled by socialists.
Was Wehner then blamed for Willy Brandt’s action paralysis, caused by depression and alcohol? If not, something that did not get spread outside the Palmes Government Chancellor. Just those days, Brandt’s political adviser, Günter Guillaume, was on holiday in France where he was shaded by the security police for his cooperation with Stasi.
The Wallenberg Case? That question was certainly not on the table. Despite the fact that Wehner’s faithful Carl-Gustaf Svingel, backed by S-Marked General Consul Sven Backström in 1966, was challenged for an exchange with Colonel Stig Wennerström. Svingel’s presentation met Tage Erlander and Foreign Minister Torsten Nilsson with great skepticism. Wallenberg was a hot potato, so interrogation with Svingel did not turn out to be the case with the Polish policeman. Svingel also did not want to reveal that the wooden item came from the Soviet Berlin Ambassador. His east contacts for Wallenberg ended in 1971. The UD finally saw the so-called Swing Business . Torsten Nilsson -Kreiskys and Brandt’s friend since the youth-tired of Palme as his own foreign minister and left the same year.
The next day, the CDU leader Rainer Barzel aroused a vigilant vote against Brandt’s government with Social Democrats and Liberals. The coalition rescued only two votes in the Bundestag. They came from two CDU members mutated by Stasi.
The mistrust was directed against Willy Brandt’s new Ostpolitik, which was laid with the agreements in Moscow and Warzava in 1970, followed by the 1973 Prague Convention. The boundaries were acknowledged in exchange for increased swings for West German politics at the expense of the GDR. Brandts initiated constitutional treaties in December 1972. This meant mutual recognition of the two German states, with provisional diplomatic contacts and membership of the United Nations. Willy Brandt’s political star was in zenith and in 1971 he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
For new-born East German leader Erich Honecker, the signing was a triumph, but at the same time created uncertainty. Higher walls and more border guards or a more generous extradition of East German to the west was the quirky question. The issue was highlighted by the Declaration of Citizenship , signed by 35 countries in Helsinki in 1973 and 1975.
The election was quarreled
On April 26, Palme approved the posters for the fall of the fall. One hangs in our hall, adorned with my wife’s grandmother Alida Lindmark, in Piteå known as women’s pioneer in Hortlax’s municipal policy. At the top is the text: Do not vote for security on September 16th. Vote for the Social Democrats. Alida symbolized the good tradition and grandson Andreas’s future throne. He was the son of the author, Tor Lindmark in the Social Democrats ARE companies. Tor came to the world last of nine children in a village outside society.
The protest tower scanned Palme and Geijer – Nixon’s lakes. Tradition and security were important when it blew hard from the left. “All power to the working class through labor councils, not for capitalists through parliament” affiliated revolutionary communists. KFML urged class struggle. Certainly, they were insignificant to the numerals, as environmentalists and Christian Democrats, but they strike it with strikes. In the shotgun there were both SAF and LO with Arne Geijer. He did not like Palme after the Vietnam Demonstration and resigned as a LO boss on April 27th.
Two days after Palme’s first speech in Stockholm came the cold shower. Jan Guillou and Peter Bratt revealed in the People in Bild / Kulturfront the IB Agency, where the defense with the Social Democrats / Workers’ Unions spanned on the left. The manager was Palmes friend Birger Elmér . On the same day, Mona Andersson showed SSU’s new film “Together for an Idea and for Freedom” for Palme. She later became known as Sahlin.
Palme’s review could be torn by the crisis. Then he was such a vengeful swordsman like Aramis. As when the protest storm flared against US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger’s participation in the Bilderberg Conference, May 11-13, at the Wallenbergs Grand Hotel in Saltsjöbaden. Stop Kissinger instructed a nervous palme his foreign minister Krister Wikman. Markus Wallenberg entered the UN, and Prince Bernard threatened to move the event at the last minute. The conference of world leaders, including Palme and Wallenberg, was held as planned – which in some ways was unfortunate because it contributed to the autumn oil crisis. The humiliation was no less because Kissinger received the Nobel Peace Prize the same year.
Dear Bruno, Dear Willy!
The words begin the letter that Palme sends to Kreisky and Brandt in early May. The in- depth friendship opened for political visions. Karisman raised the masses. The international game plan was their best branch. In the political sense of everyday life, they were worse. Where political consensus was needed, Palme denounced the rulers of the party and Brandt among their own.
In the big policy, Palme closed doors. Brandt was smarter. May began with Brandt and his heavy ministers in the United States left with colleagues led by Richard Nixon. One can guess as a genre for Brezhnev’s West German visit two weeks later. As a rule, a genre for Communist leader’s trip to Nixon’s Washington was in mid June.
It was noticed that the two heads of government did not spit in the glasses. Here the Russians are born by Norwegian born Rut Brandt.
A satisfied Leonid Brezhnev went home from Bonn with the agreement where German technology was exchanged for commodities from Siberia. Feel fond of the gift, a silver gray Mercedes 450SLC.
The Christian Democrats CDU / CSU threatened to torpedate the Constitutional Treaty with the help of the Administrative Court. Honecker contradicted not handing out 2,000 refugees of the three thousand in the family reunification that Herbert Wehner negotiated with the Wolfgang Vogel DDR. Since 1969 they had meetings almost every month in Wehner’s simple townhouse in Bonn or in Ölandsstugan.
Or they were discreetly seen at Carl-Gustaf Svingel at Haus Wiktoria in the district of Grunewald. Refused Vogel’s departure, Svingel became a messenger through the wall. Social Democrat Sven Backlund, since 1972 ambassador to Berlin, served as lubricant, so Olof Palme was probably on a corner.
Wehner’s party colleague Egon Bahr got stuck in the negotiations, which, according to him, should be served by state officials and not lawyers. A couple of thousand adults and children with “packed suitcases” did not travel to the west as promised. “What are we doing now?” Wehner asked . “I think you should talk with number one,” replied Vogel, aiming at DDR leader Erich Honecker, who was Wehner’s acquaintance during the communist youth years in the Saar area.
Wehner did not disclose his travel plan except possibly some in the circuit around the Chancellor’s Chancellor. With the stepdog and sedate the wife Greta Burmester at the wheel, Wehner goes to 30th of May to East Berlin. The border guard in Herleshausen hesitated without special OK from the top, you only let go of pensioners. We are retired screaming Wehner and Greta pushed the gas at the bottom. In a way, a repetition when DDR lawyer Wolfgang Vogel went slalom between the same obstacle released in his gold-colored luxury mercury, fixed in the other direction.
The knots about the extradition were resolved at the coffee table outside on the terrace, and perhaps Wehner revealed his heart’s view of the Chancellor’s Chancellor. The cups flew on the table, said Wehner. The two thousand East German settlements were located in the west, in exchange for hard West German soil.
At the same time, Bonn was informed that Brandt’s assistant Günter Guillaume was Stasiagent. There were Herbert Wehner. At Honecker it crept out. Also, he in East German sold? In the same way as for Palme, he risked a reputation for joining communist gangs. (Archives opened after the eastern collapse gave no evidence that this was the case).
How to get home Wehner fast? Carl Gustaf Svingel found advice and allowed the wife of Wehner to contact the husband with the message that she was severely ill.
The paradoxes summer
June 6th, Willy Brandt visits Golda Meir Israel . The symbolism is strengthened with visits to the Klagomuren and the Muslim rock mosque in Jerusalem. Although Bruno Kresiky met Meir in Israel though, he had, despite his Jewish, a complex relationship. Kreisky claimed to be “the only European politician whom Golda Meir could not execute extortion against”. Prime Minister Menachem Begin thought he had been a terrorist (who participated in the murder of Folke Bernadotte – the Swedish who saved 15,000 Jewish camp prisoners with the white buses). Both Kresiky and Olof Palme preferred relations with the arable people. Kreisky and Palme had a lot to talk about when they were seen in Malmö at the end of July.
Palme was ported in the United States, but Archbishop Brezjnev received a warm reception by President Nixon on June 18th. The Communist leader charmed everyone, even Nixon – pressed by Watergate as he was. More nuclear weapons agreements were in sight with which Brezjnev with a blue Lincoln. A hilarious Leononid drove with Nixon next to it as a car jealousy around Camp David’s summer residence.
It just lasted a month, an official in the White House for the Senate revealed that everything Nixon said was stored on the basement basement. The president just had no more than a friend left, Leonid Brezhnev. In August the following year the president threw in the towel. An all grimmer Brezhnev lost more power in the Kremlin, which in practice was ruled by Andropov Andropov.
In Jerusalem, Willy Brandt entered the King David Hotel. A fitting name for it was alleged that he, like Batseba , tried to seduce the star journalist Vibke Bruhn , married to actors. Brandt’s “Damen list” may be an unfortunate libel in the same way that Palme was blackened as a womanizer.
In June, Brandt with her family took four weeks of vacation in the cottage, which they used in Norwegian Hamar.
Stopping Guillaume as a companion would raise suspicions. The assistant therefore got to Norway with the family and lived in the neighboring house. Brandts came by with the flight. Vibke Bruhn, close friend of Ruth Brandt, was part of the company. Guillaume handled the chancellor’s telex as usual.
On the return, Guillaume stayed at Hotel Hallandia in Halmstad. In the bar he dumped the room key to the East Germanman. With the dance, the photographed agent went on the documents that were in a bag in the room. How much the spy boss Wolf and Stasiegeneralen Erich Mielke got out of this information is clear. Politically, it became an accident for the GDR.
The autumn of crises
23 August 1973. Elections in full swing. King Gustaf Adolf is the death of Helsingborg’s lasaret. Jan Erik Olsson steps into Kreditbanken at Norrmalmstorg in Stockholm and demands a free car and a billion. He pushes an ointment on the roof and takes four employees as hostage. The only requirement that is met is that the police from the Norrköping Prison carry up Clark Olofsson (born next to the same Backamo where Carl-Gustaf Swingel’s mother, Alma Samuelsson, housed in the registry cookie). Olofsson watches together with Olsson hostage in the bank’s basement. Palme is calling and the response from the hostage woman has gone to the history of Stockholm’s sky: “I’m disappointed in you. Can not you let me, Elisabeth, Clark and the robber bring down the money and two guns they request? Then we can go away. For that, I and I trust them. “
The collapse was disturbed even more September 11 when President Allende with American assistance was displaced in Chile. With the good memory of Palm, the Swedish Embassy in Santiago served as a free zone for persecution, often with free shelter to Sweden and other countries. Ambassador Harald Edenstam saved just over 1000 and was called the 1970’s Raoul Wallenberg. With the same humanitarian patos as Carl-Gustaf Svingel, who handled the most complicated extraditions to the West for 32,000 East German.
I en nio sidor lång artikel om Carl-Gustaf Svingel satte der Spiegel rubriken Der heimliche Botschafter. ”Den hemlige ambassadören” arbetade humanitärt och utan att som Wolfgang Vogel och flera andra tjäna pengar på trafiken. Svingel karakteriserades av svenska byråkrater som en speciell person, det vill säga en besvärlig representant som gärna tog till okonventionella metoder. Som Harald Edenstam och och. Raoul Wallenberg
Så mycket socialdemokratisk förnyelse syntes inte i höstens valdebatt. Palmes eleganta florettstick bet inte mot trygge Fälldins hötjuga. S backade i valet 16 september sju mandat och C ökade med nitton, så i riksdagen blev det oavgjort 175/175. Hade kungen hållits vid liv ett dygn till hade borgarna troligen vunnit, för bara 4 000 röster skilde blocken.
September 26, Willy Brandt talks to the UN and afterwards he meets with President Nixon; both happily unaware of the crisis around the corner. Diplomat and later Deputy General Secretary Jan Eliasson, wrote minutes from the meetings with Palme, Kreisky and Brandt. Eliasson described Brand’s UN speech with the words: “Brandt was the first German Chancellor to address the United Nations General Assembly on 26 September 1973, eight days after West Germany became a United Nations Member. With Henry Kissinger and Andrei Gromyko among those in a packed General Assembly Hall, Brandt renounced the use of force, even as huge arsenals around the world continued to grow. He condemned racism as “inhuman and the cause of the most terrible crimes” in a clear reference to the Holocaust. And he called for a “greater community which gives us peace, security and hence freedom “.
Shortly after, Herbert Wehner was interviewed in Moscow. His comment: “The gentleman would like to have a nice baby, preferably skimbed”. Der Spiegel sprinkled more salt in Brandt wounds under the heading “The Federal Government lacks a head”.
October 6, during the Jews’ prime celebrity Jom Kippur, Israel is surprised by a massive attack by hundreds of thousands of soldiers from Egypt and Syria. The Golan Heights and Sinai, lost in the six-day war, would be reclaimed with MIG planes, armor and robotic weapons delivered from the eastern block. From the GDR, not least, who sent 600,000 Kalashnikov, land mines and ammunition. After major losses in manpower and equipment, Golda Meir was tight and threatened to take nuclear weapons. The October War risked to be an international big conflict.
Three of the actors of the drama had moved away from Hitler and lived as refugees. Two with Jewish fathers, Kreisky and Kissinger – who first campaigned for Democrat Lyndon Johnson and then as Secretary of State torped for Richard Nixon. The two in the White House quickly organized an air bridge with weapons and ammunition to Israel while the Soviet was invading military material to Syria. That Berlin was rescued with an American air bridge in 1948 did not disturb Willy Brandt. He closed the port of Bremerhafen for US arms deliveries to Israel. US Air Force did not get the stopover for refueling in Europe, Portugal’s Azores exception.
Phantom plane from a US aircraft carrier flew to Israel, where those with new national names were quickly set in conflict. With fresh arms deliveries, Israel recalled the initiative with tanks that reached the Suez Canal and close to Damascus. That Kissinger in the midst of the war was awarded Nobel Peace Prize uttered many. On the same day, the Persian Gulf states increased the crude oil price by 17 percent.
The ceasefire began on October 25, the Final Peace Agreement signed in 1978-1979 with President Jimmy Carter at Camp David. Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and former terrorist, Prime Minister Menachem Begin, were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
Kreisky and Palme were increasingly on the Arab side. Palme’s voice, Foreign Minister Krister Wickman , declared that Israel was blamed for the October War. In a speech to the UN General Assembly , he said that the problems in the Middle East “are not solved by demonstrating one’s military superiority” by one or the other party.
At the same time, the IB business began to burn under the feet of Palme. On October 22, journalists Jan Guillou and Peter Bratt , suspected of spying by Säpo, were arrested.
Neutrality did not bind Olof Palme’s in-depth relationship with Yassir Arafat, leader of PLO – known for the Olympic massacre in Munich in 1972 and many other terrorist attacks.
Call the war cooler
In November when Arab states ran the oil crane by a quarter, the oil crisis was a fact. At the beginning of December, Palme, Brandt and Kreisky discussed the issue in the German town of Schlangenbad .
Those who were kicked from crippling companies remained happy unaware of the optimism of the three Heads of Government. People would rather take the train, which was good for the environment, Brandt and Kreisky felt. Palme was more radical: a new start for socialism with growing GDP. better distributed to citizens. The LO had begun investigating the takeover of wage labor funds. Perhaps the Heads of Government were encouraged by Henry Kissinger, who thought that the oil traded in a rising dollar would pay the bill for the Vietnam war.
The energy crisis brought unemployment, inflation or rather stagnation across the globe. Oljerika Soviet was pleased with a more profitable export, which for some time concealed domestic problems in the economy.
Opec’s oil embargo led to rationing in Sweden on 6 December. Christmas eve doubled the Opec oil price. Shipping companies fell. Applauded with money, government money was pumped into deadly laps with thin order books. The ironworks did not get rid of the plate.
Og nu det virker min eneste sjanse er å gi opp kampen; And how could I ever refuse I feel like I win when I lose; Waterloo I was defeated, you won the war.
Heads of State and Government had reason to sing Waterloo at the presidential Pompidous funeral April 6, 1974. Abba won the song in Brighton that night. An action-led Brandt attenuated his depression with spirits – after a month earlier learned that his counselor Guillaume will be arrested. Palme lost in the election and must compromise in the lottery day.
The day after the memorial service in Notre Dam, Palme received five minutes with Nixon, formally but cordially as Svenska Dagbladet wrote. Much thanks to the salvation with the ambassador’s exchange in March. The president was too busy with Watergate to care about Sweden. However, his hard work was tightened when his close colleague Bob Haldeman and John Ehrlichman were fired in April.
Nixon resigned in August but Kissinger remained as Secretary of State until 1977. The increasingly hot relationship with Palme, with channels to the Third World, was a lot of Washington Ambassador Wilhelm Wachtmeister’s merit – a diplomacy that continued with the tennis-playing President Bush, the elder.
April 24, Guillaume was arrested. whereby the man proclaimed “I am a national and officer in the DDR. Respect it “. Shortly thereafter, Palme sent a letter about the future of democracy to Brandt and Kreisky. Wehner, from his confidant, Günther Nollau, learned that the search query revealed Brandt’s leap, which could lead to extortion. A reputation suggested a deal with a female reporter from Sweden’s Television. Conquests, politically and in love, as in the era of musketeers.
On Saturday, May 4, in Bad Münstereifel southwest of Bonn, Wehner Brandt demanded a resignation of Chancellor Chancellor. The others in the SPD line were opposed. Particularly reluctant was the only possible replacement Helmut Schmith. The next day, Brandt flagged his farewell unofficially. Palme was well kept. Because Bonn Ambassador Sven Backlund advised an American journalist to have the radio the following evening.
On Monday morning, Carl-Gustaf Svingel and Wolfgang Vogel breakfasted with Herbert Wehner, who asked: “What would you say if Willy Brandt is not Chancellor tomorrow?” Svingel stayed at Wehner while Vogel hurried to Berlin, probably to tip his boss Mielke in Stasihög kvartalet – for further promotion to Erich Honecker.
May 7, Brandt enters into Guillaume as a pretext, but mostly he is exhausted by internal battles and a crisis. Helmut Sshmith has been persuaded to become chancellor. Certainly, Brandt continued as a party leader and, together with Palme and Kreisky, activated the socialist international. But as a core group in European politics, the musketeer’s poke was over.
Palme was replaced by the center’s Torbjörn Fälldin after the 1976 loss election. Failing votes and failing health, Bruno Kreisky had to resign in 1983. Herbert Wehner became ill and left the 1983 federation. Willy Brandt received a heart attack in 1978 and stepped up as a SPD chairman.
Willy Brandt used the cover names “der Schwede” and “der Opernsänger” for Svingel. He then became useful to Chancellor Schmidt as “unsure Botschafter”. Still Swedish citizen as a life insurance behind the wall. In 1976 he received members of the Sommerlath family just for Queen Silvia’s wedding. Axel von Fersen is considered a model for the French Revolution Scarlet Pimpernell. Red-cunning of our time was rewarded with the HM King’s medal in the seraphim word’s blue band 1981.